1998-99 Mystery
Steamer Trunk #4

The beginning of our river.

A coast of one of the influxes of our river.

Water resources

The water resources of the territory are great. The water fond consist of: 

  1. 29 thousand rivers, which are 90 thousand km long (from them only 120 rivers have length more than 50 km, other rivers - small rivers) ; 
  2. about 800 lakes which area is more than 120 square km; 
  3. about 1000 swaps, 
  4. various types of underground waters; 
  5. about 500 ponds. 

Rivers are the base of the hydrographic web of the territory. They all belong to one watershed. It is possible through the system of canals to reach 5 seas. 
The rivers are picturesque and quite different. Some of them are quick and deep, others are quiet and shallow. 
The main source of the water is snow. The more snow in winter - the more water in the rivers in summer.

A lake, formed by the underground river.

A transportation of wood (rafts) on the river

The lakes are poetically called "the blue eyes of the planet". Most of the lakes of the territory are small and nameless. 
The total area of the lakes is not more than 0,1% from the area of the territory. Some of the lakes are guarded by the state to save the numerous flocks of birds. Swamps are widely spread. Some of them are nature made, others are the result of man's intense interference in nature. 
The underground waters are of various types and suitable for drinking. There are a lot of mineral springs which can be used to cure people's disease in resorts. 
 

Vegetation

The main type of vegetation on the territory are forests, which cover 71% of the whole region.  The main species are firs (which prevail) and silver firs.  From north to south some leaf-bearing trees appear. Lime, for example.  The further to south the more various trees appear. Besides lime-trees there are maples, elms and even oaks. 
Near peat-bogs and a long swamped rivers there is much moss. The trees are short and curve.  Pine forests are extended on the north-west of the territory. They hold the second place among the forests of the region.  There are many forests which appeared after fires and glades. 
On the territory of the region there are a lot of timber-felling sites and to restore forests there are nursery gardens begin organized. 
Meadows and pastures cover about 10% of the territory. Swampy soil occupies 5% of the region.

A coniferous forest. Winter.

A nature of our region. Summer.

Industry

Our city has great industrial potential. Machine building and metallurgy, metal fabricating and oil refining, woodworking and timber processing, food and other light industries play leading roles in the city's economy.

More than 80% of the industrial production in machine building and metal fabrication in our region is concentrated in the city. These businesses specialize in various military and space technologies, equipment for oil and gas extraction, mining and chemical enterprises, transportation and the manufacture of electrical supplies.  The largest plants are Motors Stock Company, one of the leading aircraft engine producers in country; Motovilikha Factories Stock Company, known for its steel rolling and machinery; the Velta Plant, manufacturing bicycles and spare parts for automobiles; and the Instrument Making Company, which is famous for its river and maritime navigation systems and various electrical appliances (drilling machines, hammers, etc.) 

Our city is an important center of the country chemical industry. Many kinds of paints, detergents, and oil refining products are produced here. Lukoil, largest oil producer and refiner in country, has several refineries nearby. Galogen, Sorbent, Kamtex, and several other major chemical manufacturers have plants in the region. 

Fabrication of medicines. Company Biomed is a leading producer of a wide range of medical, immunobiological and pharmaceutical preparations. 
Our highly skilled scientist and specialists research and elaborate new effective preparations with the use of modern technology. Biomed is constantly developing its products and produces more than 65 preparations. 
A emblem of company Biomed.

As the leading manufacturer of cables and wires in our country, Joint-stock company Kamkabel hase won recognition for constant standards of high quality in exporting to 80 countries, including USA, China and the United Arab Emirates. Pemos is one of leading developers and manufacturers of household and industrial detergents. A regional raw materials base, an advantageous location at the intersection of major transport routes, new marketing strategies and a constructive approach to worldwide experience confirm the status of PEMOS as one of the most promising business partners in the rapidly growing on our country market. Because of the rich forest resources of the region, the timber industry is also highly developed. There are a few wood and pulp processing plants, as well as wrapping paper and packaging enterprises, including those producing high quality paper and printing products.
161 enterprises of our city export goods into 53 countries outside country as well as to ten CIS countries. They export airplane and helicopter engines, crude oil and fertilizers, acids and salts, cables and generators, power saws and telephones, forestry products and electrical machines, and much more. Almost all branches of industry are represented here, and many economists consider our city to be the most well developed area of the country. Until recently the majority of enterprises were associated with the defense industry. Some still are. But with the conversion to greater civilian production, many of them have begun to develop new technologies and products. The wide range of educational and research institutions and universities in our city serves as a firm foundation for future successful changes.

A wooden sculpture.History artifacts.

In the villages near by the river there was a widely spread making of wooden gobs. Now the remained gobs are pieces of arts. Nowadays they occupy a large hall in our picture gallery and anyone who wants to see them may get acquainted with the art of our ancestors.

A emblem of our city.The status of the City Emblem: the City Emblem is a historical, identifying, conventional sign, composed according to the heraldic rules. It is a symbol of our city self-governing.  Description of a silver bear, coming to the left, putting on a red heraldic shield, carrying the gospel in golden frame. Above the bear theme is a silver four-sided cross.
Things made from birch bark.These beautiful things are made of birch bark. They are called tuesoks. Many years ago, when there were no plates and dishes people made tuesoks to use instead of bowls and pans. They kept berries, salted mushrooms and other food in tuesoks. Tuesoks are still being made by masters and they are popular with the people.
National suits of people of our region.National suits of people of our region.A lot of nationalities live in our region. On the photo you can see national costumes of one of nationalities.

 

A lesder of peasant rebellion XVI age.In the second half of the 16th century there was a man in our country, who organized a peasant revolt. The armed people under his leadership made routes by rivers and more land. In 1578 he and his people had to spend winter in an ice cave which is well-known nowadays and which is situated in 100 km from our city. 


In 1584 he and his people got in an ambush and were defeated. The leader tried to save by the river, but he sank because of the heavy armour. He became people's hero and a lot of songs, ballads, legends were written and told about him. There is a picture by a well-known painter which reflects the events of that peasants' revolt. 

A march of peasant troops.

The ataman.A hundred years later (in 60-70 ties of the 17th century) a new peasant revolt flashed in our country. It was one of the greatest in Russia's history. And again the leader led his troops, there were heated battles and a lot of people died then. There are monuments to defenders in 2 towns which are 100 km to the south of our city. The leader (or the ataman) was seized by the tsar troops, taken to the capital and executed in 1775. And again ordinary people wrote songs, ballads and legends to him.

A monument to protectors of a city from rebelled peasants. A monument to protectors of a city from rebelled peasants.

 

A young composer.A famous composer.This man was born in 1840 in a small town in the south of our region. His parents liked music very much. They organized amateur musical concerts at home. It was the place where the Great Musician, the great Composer was born. 
He composed concerts, a lot of great world - famous operas and ballets, with "The Swan Lake" and The Orlean's Girl" among them.

An inventor of radio.A circuitry.In 1873-1877 a future inventor of radio at the age 14-18 studied in a seminary of our city. When a student he was good at math's and he had a nick name "a mathematician". 


In January 1901 during the test of wire less telegraph a group of fishermen was saved in a drifting ice-floe. It happened thanks to the radiogram, which was used for the first time. The wireless telegraph showed to mankind what a great mean of communication it is. 

The wooden house, where the inventor lived in our city was burnt from fire in the 80ies of the 19th century.

A Minister of Foreign Affairs One of the inventors of arc electric welding.Left: Our city was founded in 1723. It grew out of a village near a small metal factory.  From 1940 to 1957 it was named after a Minister of Foreign Affairs. 

Right: In 1883-1897 an inventor of the arched electric welding lived in our city.  Now one of the colleges is named after him.

A dinosaur.According to the geochronical table the life on the Earth is derided into several periods has the same name with our region. 

The period took place 230-285 mln year ago. 
The peculiarities of the sea invertebrate, predomination of primitive reptiles and appearance of the dinosaur's ancestors.

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Center for Global Environmental Education
Hamline University Graduate School of Education
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